This is a 7 week series. Join us next Friday for part 2.
A Word of Explanation
These posts were originally written up as part of my assignments for the Emmaus Residency. During that time, I posted them on my blog, and have since then trimmed them down to be posted here. By way of introduction, let me first just affirm that, yes, these doctrines are about Calvinism–and by “Calvinism,” I’m really just concerned with soteriology here (the doctrine of salvation). Also, the term “Calvinism” is really only helpful insofar as it serves as theological shorthand; I hope to show that these doctrines are biblical. In other words, these truths are much older than Calvin. In fact, they’re older than the foundations of the world. That being said, I would encourage you to read these blogs with the Scriptures on hand so you can carefully consider my words in light of God’s Word.
Setting the Stage
Let’s start in the beginning. Christian’s hold that God created the universe ex nihilo–from absolutely nothing (Genesis 1). This reality itself sets the stage for how we understand everything. This beautiful doctrine finds God situated squarely in the middle of all existence; nothing in this universe can be properly understood until it is understood in relation to God.
Most theological traditions that unintentionally minimize the sovereignty of God do so by starting here; by failing to recognize what “from nothing” truly means. They view God as the director of a movie; whose sovereign authority is genuine, but who is nevertheless dependent on his actors and crew to play their parts and add their personal flair to make his vision possible. In contrast to this, the Calvinistic tradition views God as more like an author, whose sovereignty literally creates his characters. He needs them for nothing, his imagination is the sole origin of their very existence.
Creator and Sustainer
Now, this much we could establish from the doctrine of creation alone. However, God has graciously given us more liberty to justify such audacious claims about him. Let me explain. In Genesis, we are told that God’s Word is the instrument for conceiving the universe (“And God said, ‘Let there be…’”) and in the first chapter of John, we discover that this Word is not merely a sound coming from his mouth; the Word of God is the second member of the Trinity; God the Son (John 1:1-3). So this originating instrument of everything is the eternal Son of God. And the work of the Son in creation is constant. Lest we think that Jesus’ creative contribution was simply a thing that he performed at the dawn of time, we are told by Paul not only that “all things were created through him and for him,” but also that “he is before all things, and in him all things hold together.” (Colossians 1:15-20) Additionally, we are told in Hebrews not only that “he created the world,” but also that “he upholds the universe by the word of his power.” (Hebrews 1:1-3).
This means that Jesus is willfully, intentionally keeping our hearts beating at this very moment. I woke up this morning on purpose; that is, Jesus’ purpose. There are stars in the cosmos–stars we may never become aware of–which are dying at this very moment because Jesus is telling them to. Somewhere in this world, a mountain goat is giving birth at the command of Jesus. There are no loose ends; the whole thing is kept together not merely by a system that God designed, but by God himself. This is what Calvinism means when it says that God is sovereign. He is the boss. Not hypothetically, but in real time and space.
History On Purpose
If this is true in the broad sense, it must be true in the narrow as well. If God’s sovereignty extends to the very fabric of every created thing, this must include the fabric of every individual who drives history forward, which means that he is sovereign over history as well. This is exactly what we find in Scripture. He can never be thwarted by the will of man (Psalm 33:13-19), he does what he pleases (Psalm 115:3). Kingdoms rise and fall according to his purposes. (Proverbs 21:1) Human history isn’t incidental; God is telling a story. This is how Nebuchadnezzar can appropriately say of God,
His dominion is an everlasting dominion, and his kingdom endures from generation to generation; all the inhabitants of the earth are accounted as nothing, and he does according to his will among the host of heaven and among the inhabitants of the earth; and none can stay his or say to him, “What have you done?” (Daniel 4:34b-35)
When God answered Job in a whirlwind with a litany of questions, it wasn’t because he was curious and was hoping that Job had the answers; he was telling Job the answers (Job 38-41). This is how God can literally use Babylon as a “hammer of war” to punish Israel (much to Habakkuk’s horror), and then turn around and punish Babylon for being a hammer (Jeremiah 51).
The Problem of Evil
Now, this is where things get a little hairy for us. Because the most glaring consistency in human history is sin. The wheels of history are covered in blood; blood shed in sin, by evil people. What about God’s sovereignty there? God clearly hates sin; he does not approve of it and does not want us to participate in it. Yet he orchestrates a history that is marked by evil and sin. What can we say to these things? This is really where other theological traditions can mistakenly assume the position of moral high ground. They say that God has nothing at all to do with the evil events in history, and the responsibility is solely man’s. To be sure, we are told that man is personally and solely responsible for his own sin, and is never actually justified in accusing God of making him sinful (Romans 9:6-21). However, this does not alleviate us from the problem. The Bible clearly describes God using evil for his own purpose (Genesis 50:20). The very crucifixion was the most wicked event in all of human history, and it went completely according to the “definite plan and foreknowledge of God” (Acts 2:23). These things are in tension; God is absolutely sovereign and he absolutely hates sin, and man is totally wicked and is absolutely responsible for his sin.
We often attempt to minimize the tension of this mystery by hiding behind theological jargon. So we say things like, “There are two wills of God; his revealed will and his secret will.” or “We affirm compatibilism.” Don’t get me wrong, these terms are helpful and useful, and I will explain them in more detail as we proceed. But these terms are only useful insofar as they are merely ways of stating the tension that exists in scripture, as opposed to explaining them away. The Christian faith is built on mysteries. The Trinity. The Hypostatic Union. Union with Christ. The resurrection from the dead. We cannot be afraid to have our thinking adjusted by the word of God. In fact, we must have our thinking adjusted by the word of God.
Big, “Boots-On-The-Ground” Theology
What frustrates us are scenarios in which we cannot conceivably think of an outcome that would justify a given crime. Like a plane crashing into the World Trade Center on 9/11. Or a myriad of Jews, marched like cattle to be poisoned or burned in Nazi death camps. Or Africans ripped from their homes by slave traders, to be put to forced labor and treated as subhuman. Or millions of infants hacked up in their mothers’ wombs, to be offered up as a sacrifice to the idol of Autonomy. Or young girls being lured away from their homes and assimilated into the deplorable, and lucrative business of sex trafficking. Is God actually glorified by this crap? And if so, could his glory actually be worth it?
This is where our theology is very important, and if it operates properly, it will certainly take the swagger out of our step. We must hold these bold truths with humility, because ultimately, we have to deal with the harsh reality that God is allowing–more than that, ordaining–these nauseating realities that he hates. But lest we allow for our indignation towards these realities pull us away too soon from the (seemingly) unbearable possibility that God has good purposes for them, let us consider our options. It makes our stomach churn to think that God might have good eschatological purposes for keeping the heart of a rapist beating while he rapes his victim, but what’s the alternative? A God who can’t say “stop beating” to the rapist’s heart? Or worst yet, a God who can stop his heart, but chooses not to because he values the free will of the rapist over the safety of his victim? No. I, for one, am glad that God has promises to work all things out for the good of those who love him (Romans 8:28).
We can either tell the victim, with tears in our eyes, that her suffering matters to God, but the autonomous volition of her abuser matters more; or we can tell her, with tears in our eyes, that her suffering matters to God, and it is not wasted; it is an affliction that will yield for her an eternal weight of glory beyond all comparison (2 Corinthians 4:17). We need a God big enough to say that about, and we need a theology big enough to describe him. Thankfully, we have Calvinism.